James R. Evans, in Encyclopedia of the Human Brain, 2002. III.D. Dissociative Disorders. Dissociative disorders occur when there is a disruption in the usually unified aspects of consciousness such as memory, affect, perception, and sense of identity. One of the most severe of these disorders is dissociative identity disorder (DID), formerly referred to as multiple personality disorder.
Dissociative disorders include dissociative amnesia, dissociative fugue, depersonalisation disorder and dissociative identity disorder. People who experience a traumatic event will often have some degree of dissociation during the event itself or in the following hours, days or weeks.
It defines dissociative identity disorder in section 300.14 (dissociative disorders) as follows: Disruption of identity characterised by two or more distinct personality states, which may be described in some cultures as an experience of possession.
Dissociative disorders are not as well understood as many other psychiatric conditions. They are more controversial, and some clinicians have even questioned whether they exist.Dissociative disorders are hard to detect and underdiagnosed, and as a result of these and other factors, there is no clear clinical consensus on the best treatment protocol for dissociative disorders.
Advances in the Diagnosis of Dissociative Disorders. Over the past twenty five years, there has been an increase in scientific research on the diagnosis and treatment of dissociative disorders.
Dissociative Disorders Dissociative disorders are characterized by an involuntary escape from reality characterized by a disconnection between thoughts, identity, consciousness and memory. Dissociative disorders usually first develop as a response to a traumatic event to keep those memories under control.
Dissociative disorder not otherwise specified (DDNOS) is an inclusive category for classifying dissociative syndromes that do not meet the full criteria of any of the other dissociative disorders.
Substance use disorders are common in individuals with dissociative disorders, which may be because some turn to drug and alcohol use as a way of coping. Dissociative disorders should be treated alongside any substance use disorders, as it would likely be harmful to ignore either.